Experiments


Carnegie Hall ticket for Savoy Brown concert, September 14, 1971

CH’s Rock Explosion of 1971-72

chdl-0011

Carnegie Hall experienced a veritable rock explosion during its 1971-72 season, with 70 rock concerts between September 1971 and June 1972.

Here are two ways to learn about these events. First, explore a birthplace map of the rockers who performed on these concerts by clicking on the 🔴 red map markers!

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Find out more about these events and their contemporary context in the chronological table below. Click on an event title to view details, and view the Billboard Hot 100 charts for that particular week.

Date/Time Event Hot 100 Link
Tue Sep 14 1971 at 8PM Savoy Brown, Blues Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Sep 22 1971 at 8PM Spirit in Flesh, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Sep 23 1971 at 8PM Quicksilver Messenger Service, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri Sep 24 1971 at 7PM The Beach Boys Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri Sep 24 1971 at 11PM The Beach Boys Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sat Sep 25 1971 at 8PM The Joy Wagon, featuring Joy of Cooking, Leo Kottke, and Joyous Noise Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Sep 30 1971 at 8PM Crosby & Nash Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Oct 4 1971 at 8PM Crosby & Nash Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Oct 7 1971 at 8PM Lee Michaels, Keyboardist and Singer Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Oct 11 1971 at 7PM The Mothers of Invention Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Oct 11 1971 at 11PM The Mothers of Invention Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Oct 24 1971 at 3PM Mandrill, Funk Band, and Buzzy Linhart, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Nov 15 1971 at 7PM Pink Floyd Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Nov 18 1971 at 8PM Delaney & Bonnie and Friends Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Nov 21 1971 at 7PM The Kinks Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Nov 23 1971 at 7PM The Doors Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Nov 25 1971 at 7PM The Allman Brothers Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Nov 25 1971 at 11PM The Allman Brothers Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Nov 29 1971 at 8PM James Taylor, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Nov 30 1971 at 8PM James Taylor, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Dec 1 1971 at 8PM James Taylor, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Dec 2 1971 at 8PM James Taylor, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri Dec 3 1971 at 8PM Brewer & Shipley, Folk Rock Duo Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Dec 7 1971 at 8PM Poco, Country Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Dec 8 1971 at 8PM Poco, Country Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Dec 9 1971 at 8PM Poco, Country Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Dec 28 1971 at 8PM Sha Na Na Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Dec 28 1971 at 11PM Sha Na Na Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Dec 29 1971 at 8PM It's a Beautiful Day, Psychedelic/Folk Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Dec 30 1971 at 7PM Chuck Berry and Jerry Lee Lewis Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Dec 30 1971 at 11PM Chuck Berry and Jerry Lee Lewis Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Feb 6 1972 at 8PM Lighthouse, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri Feb 18 1972 at 8PM Don McLean, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Feb 27 1972 at 7PM T. Rex with Jackie Lomax Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Mar 1 1972 at 7PM Badfinger with Al Kooper Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Mar 2 1972 at 8PM The Kinks Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri Mar 3 1972 at 8PM The Kinks Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Mar 16 1972 at 8PM Delaney & Bonnie and Friends with Billy Preston, Kenny Loggins, and Jim Messina Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sat Mar 18 1972 at 8PM Bread, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Mar 20 1972 at 8PM The Beach Boys Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue Mar 21 1972 at 8PM The Beach Boys Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Mar 22 1972 at 8PM The Beach Boys Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Apr 3 1972 at 7PM Hot Tuna, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Apr 3 1972 at 11PM Hot Tuna, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Apr 12 1972 at 8PM Malo, Latin Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sat Apr 15 1972 at 8PM Spirit with Dr. John The Nighttripper Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Apr 16 1972 at 7PM Frankie Valli & The Four Seasons, with Jay and the Americans Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Apr 24 1972 at 8PM West, Bruce & Laing Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Apr 24 1972 at 11PM West, Bruce & Laing Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon May 1 1972 at 8PM Pink Floyd Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue May 2 1972 at 8PM Pink Floyd Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu May 4 1972 at 8PM Stephen Stills and Manassas Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri May 5 1972 at 8PM The Jeff Beck Group Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sat May 6 1972 at 12AM Midnight Performance: The Jeff Beck Group Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun May 7 1972 at 8PM The Youngbloods, with Batdorf and Rodney Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri May 12 1972 at 8PM The James Gang Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon May 15 1972 at 8PM Lee Michaels, Keyboardist and Singer Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue May 16 1972 at 8PM Lee Michaels, Keyboardist and Singer Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu May 18 1972 at 8PM Van Morrison, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon May 22 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Tue May 23 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed May 24 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu May 25 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Fri May 26 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sat May 27 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun May 28 1972 at 8PM Chicago, Rock Band Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Sun Jun 4 1972 at 8PM New Riders of the Purple Sage Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Mon Jun 5 1972 at 8PM New Riders of the Purple Sage Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Thu Jun 8 1972 at 8PM Todd Rundgren, Singer-Songwriter Billboard Hot 100 for this week
Wed Jun 21 1972 at 8PM Roy Buchanan and the Snakestretchers Billboard Hot 100 for this week

lab report


EXPERIMENT LABEL/TITLE

CH’s Rock Explosion of 1971-72

TL;DR

We created a map to explore the birthplaces of rock performers from Carnegie Hall’s 1971-72 season, a table to link to information on each performance, and a link to the Billboard Hot 100 charts from the week of each concert.


Carnegie Hall experienced a veritable rock explosion during its 1971-72 season, with 70 rock concerts between September 1971 and June 1972. The years following the 1964 appearances by the Beatles and Rolling Stones showed steady yearly increases in the number of rock events at Carnegie Hall, from one in 1967-68, four in 1968-69, and 13 in 1969-70. But even given a jump to 38 events in 1970-71, the 70 rock concerts in 1971-72 marked a nearly unprecedented increase.

As a means to begin exploring the origins, impact, and cultural context of this period in both rock music’s and Carnegie Hall’s history, we correlated 1) a birthplace map of the performers on these events; 2) links to detailed performance information (where available); and 3) links to the Billboard Hot 100 charts corresponding to the week of each event. Since the Hot 100 reflects album sales and popular tastes, it offers an interesting contemporary lens through which to consider these events. We used performance history data from our SPARQL endpoint and data and display templates from Wikidata’s query service.

METHODS

We first ran a very basic SPARQL query to obtain the Carnegie Hall name IDs of the performers on these 70 concerts (e.g. this ID for Neil Young), which we used to create a Wikidata query to plot the birthplace of each performer on a map, using the Wikidata property for Carnegie Hall Agent ID, P4104, and the query service’s built-in map template:


              #defaultView:Map
              SELECT ?person ?personLabel ?personImage ?birthPlaceLabel ?location (YEAR(?date) as ?year)
              (IRI(CONCAT("https://www.carnegiehall.org/About/History/Performance-History-Search?q=&dex=prod_PHS&pf=",
                  (STR(ENCODE_FOR_URI(?personLabel))))) AS ?phsLink)

              WHERE
              {
                VALUES ?chAgentID {"124647" "124688" "124689" "11159" "124817" "124704" "124687" "69564" "124762"
                                            "78264" "78265" "124741" "124613" "124724" "124725" "124782" "34392"
                                            "56064" "53286" "80081" "69354" "69356" "73058" "64230" "61695" "124780"
                                            "76004" "124716" "18592" "82746" "69353" "124781" "80080" "104468"
                                            "104470" "104469" "63464" "124783" "124719" "124718" "104471" "124599"
                                            "124600" "66122" "118317" "25403" "82747" "47555" "14113" "15294" "124610"
                                            "124819" "124611" "63461" "82742" "33038" "39010" "124631" "119910"
                                            "119907" "52619" "66121" "44128" "30315" "14578" "59400" "55994" "47902"
                                            "38883" "44127" "14100" "73043" "104474" "20112" "82745" "124815"
                                            "119909" "124706" "118316" "124634" "82748" "20869" "16156" "68198"
                                            "23603" "124639" "63467" "45335" "63468" "63463" "6445" "35199" "119911"
                                            "48889" "63470" "124814" "24423" "57388" "59309" "124759" "17430"
                                            "59983" "124755" "63462" "63466" "124643" "64306" "124646" "44507"
                                            "124609" "124612" "124763" "10103" "124810" "124636" "124640" "82743"
                                            "63471" "66130" "124644" "66129" "18504" "26354" "124809" "30297"
                                            "55993" "124635" "124777" "18505" "50618" "124785" "63472" "78263"
                                            "118315" "61577" "66128" "106792" "104472" "124616" }

                  ?person wdt:P569 ?date ;
                  wdt:P19 ?birthPlace ;
                  wdt:P4104 ?chAgentID .
                  ?birthPlace wdt:P625 ?location .
                  OPTIONAL { ?person wdt:P18 ?personImage }
                  SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". }
              }
              ORDER BY ?year
            

For the Carnegie Hall event data, we created a second query for our own SPARQL endpoint to retrieve the ID, title, and date for each event, along with a formatted link to our online Performance History Search, which provides a convenient means to view the details of each performance:


              PREFIX chgenres: 
              PREFIX dcterms: 
              PREFIX event: 
              PREFIX foaf: 
              PREFIX mo: 
              PREFIX rdfs: 
              PREFIX skos: 
              PREFIX xsd: 

              SELECT DISTINCT (str(?label) AS ?eventTitle) ?date ?phsLink
              WHERE {
                ?event rdfs:label ?label ;
                mo:genre chgenres:39 ;
                dcterms:date ?date ;
                event:place ?place .
                ?place rdfs:label ?venueLabel .
                BIND(IRI(REPLACE(str(?event), "http://data.carnegiehall.org/events/", "https://www.carnegiehall.org/About/History/Performance-History-Search?q=&dex=prod_PHS&event=")) AS ?phsLink).
                FILTER(?date >= xsd:dateTime("1971-09-01T00:00:00") && ?date <= xsd:dateTime("1972-09-01T00:00:00"))
              }
              ORDER BY ?date
            

Note that both this query and the performer ID query mentioned above make use of event-level statements about the genre of the performance (http://data.carnegiehall.org/genres/39). To learn more about our approach to the concept of genre in our performance history data, please see this discussion post.

Finally, we wrote a Python script that includes a SPARQL query our own SPARQL endpoint to retrieve the ID, title, the date/time for each event, and a formatted link to our online Performance History Search, which provides a convenient means to view the details of each performance. This is combined with some date processing to find the corresponding Billboard Hot 100 chart from the week of each event. Since the Hot 100 is published weekly on Saturday, each event date is used to calculate what the date for Saturday of that week would have been, which is then combined with the base URL for the Hot 100 charts:


              # !/usr/local/bin/python3.8.1
              # ----Copyright (c) 2021 Carnegie Hall | The MIT License (MIT)----
              # ----For the full license terms, please visit https://github.com/CarnegieHall/linked-data/blob/master/LICENSE----

              ## Argument[0] is script to run
              ## Argument[1] is path to JSON results from SPARQL query of CH rock events

              import json
              from datetime import datetime, timedelta
              import dateutil.parser
              from SPARQLWrapper import SPARQLWrapper, JSON

              def get_next_weekday(startdate):
                    """
                    @startdate: given date, in format 'YYYY-MM-DD'
                    """
                    d = datetime.strptime(startdate, '%Y-%m-%d')
                    t = timedelta((12 - d.weekday()) % 7)
                    return (d + t).strftime('%Y-%m-%d')


              query = 'PREFIX chgenres: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX dcterms: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX event: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX foaf: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX mo: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX rdfs: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX skos: '
              query = query + 'PREFIX xsd: '
              query = query + 'select distinct ?event (str(?label) AS ?eventTitle) ?date ?phsLink where {'
              query = query + '?event rdfs:label ?label ;'
              query = query + 'mo:genre chgenres:39 ;'
              query = query + 'dcterms:date ?date ;'
              query = query + 'event:place ?place .'
              query = query + '?place rdfs:label ?venueLabel .'
              query = query + '''BIND(IRI(REPLACE(str(?event), "http://data.carnegiehall.org/events/", "https://www.carnegiehall.org/About/History/Performance-History-Search?q=&dex=prod_PHS&event=")) AS ?phsLink).'''
              query = query + '''FILTER(?date >= xsd:dateTime("1971-09-01T00:00:00") && ?date <= xsd:dateTime("1972-09-01T00:00:00"))}'''
              query = query + 'ORDER BY ?date'

              sparql = SPARQLWrapper("http://data.carnegiehall.org/sparql/")
              sparql.setQuery(query)
              sparql.setReturnFormat(JSON)
              results = sparql.query().convert()
              data = {}

              for result in results["results"]["bindings"]:
                  eventID = result["event"]["value"]
                  eventTitle = result["eventTitle"]["value"]
                  eventDate = result["date"]["value"]
                  href_phs = result["phsLink"]["value"]
                  displayDate = dateutil.parser.isoparse(eventDate).strftime('%a %b %-d %Y at %-I%p')

                  data[str(eventID)] = {}
                  data[str(eventID)]['eventURL'] = href_phs
                  data[str(eventID)]['eventTitle'] = eventTitle
                  data[str(eventID)]['displayDate'] = displayDate

                  eventDateTime = dateutil.parser.parse(eventDate)
                  startdate = str(datetime.date(eventDateTime))
                  hot100_date = get_next_weekday(startdate)
                  href_hot100 = 'https://www.billboard.com/charts/hot-100/'
                  text_hot100 = 'Billboard Hot 100 for this week'
                  hot100_formattedLink = f'{href_hot100}{hot100_date}'
                  data[str(eventID)]['hot100'] = hot100_formattedLink
            

CONCLUSIONS

what we learned

Wikidata’s out-of-the-box display templates are a wonderful way to easily create data visualizations, and do not require hosting your own dataset or creating your own visualization tools. They allow us to leverage the Carnegie Hall Agent ID property to surface interesting connections between CH’s named entities and external data/resources. The Billboard Hot 100 charts offer an interesting contemporary lens through which to view these rock concerts, since the programmatic content of the performances directly correlates to popular trends in a way that more “typical” Carnegie Hall performances featuring canonical classical works usually does not.

further investigation

We hope to soon write a blog post or article exploring this fascinating season of concerts in greater depth. This would include research in our archival collections to consult board minutes and executive files from the seasons preceding and following 1971-72, in order to better understand both the sudden spike in rock bookings and the subsequent sharp drop-off.


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